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Learn Python 3 Online

What is Python?

Python is a high-level, interpreted, interactive and object-oriented scripting language. It was created in 1991 by Guido van Rossum. Python is designed to be highly readable, and it has fewer syntactical constructions than other languages.

It is used for:

  • web development (server-side),
  • software development,
  • mathematics,
  • system scripting.

Python's features include:

  • Easy-to-learn - Python has few keywords, simple structure, and a clearly defined syntax. This allows a student to pick up the language quickly.
  • Easy-to-read - Python code is more clearly defined and visible to the eyes.
  • Easy-to-maintain - Python's source code is fairly easy-to-maintain.
  • A broad standard library - Python's bulk of the library is very portable and cross-platform compatible on UNIX, Windows, and Macintosh.
  • Interactive Mode - Python has support for an interactive mode which allows interactive testing and debugging of snippets of code.
  • Portable - Python can run on a wide variety of hardware platforms and has the same interface on all platforms.
  • Extendable - You can add low-level modules to the Python interpreter. These modules enable programmers to add to or customize their tools to be more efficient.
  • Databases - Python provides interfaces to all major commercial databases.
  • GUI Programming - Python supports GUI applications that can be created and ported to many system calls, libraries and windows systems, such as Windows MFC, Macintosh, and the X Window system of Unix.
  • Scalable - Python provides a better structure and support for large programs than shell scripting.

History of Python

Python was conceived in the late 1980s, and its implementation began in December 1989 by Guido van Rossum at Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in the Netherlands as a successor to the ABC language (itself inspired by SETL) capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system.

  • Python is derived from many other languages, including ABC, Modula-3, C, C++, Algol-68, SmallTalk, and Unix shell and other scripting languages.
  • Python is copyrighted. Like Perl, Python source code is now available under the GNU General Public License (GPL).
  • Python is now maintained by a core development team at the institute, although Guido van Rossum still holds a vital role in directing its progress.
  • Python 1.0 was released in November 1994. In 2000, Python 2.0 was released. Python 2.7.11 is the latest edition of Python 2.
  • Meanwhile, Python 3.0 was released in 2008. Python 3 is not backward compatible with Python 2. The emphasis in Python 3 had been on the removal of duplicate programming constructs and modules so that "There should be one -- and preferably only one -- obvious way to do it." Python 3.5.1 is the latest version of Python 3.

What is New in Python 3

Compared to Python 2, Python 3.x has changed a lot in many ways. Here are the useful changes:

  • Division
  • The __future__ module
  • Recursive glob
  • Matrix multiplication operator
  • Reading Input from Keyboard
  • Clearing lists
  • Advanced print function
  • Advanced unpacking
  • Function annotations
  • Sensible comparison
  • String interpolation
  • Underscores in numbers
  • Unicode strings
  • Unicode variable names
  • More useful exceptions
  • 2to3 Utility

For more details, you can refer to this section.

First "Hello World" Program in Python 3

To write the "Hello, World!" program, let's open up a command-line text editor such as nano and create a new file:

$ nano hello.py

Once the text file opens up in the terminal window we'll type out our program:

#hello.py

print("Hello, World!")

Once we are done writing our program, we can exit nano by typing the control and x keys, and when prompted to save the file press y.

Once you exit out of nano you'll return to your shell.

With our "Hello, World!" program written, we are ready to run the program. We'll use the python3 command along with the name of our program file. Let's run the program:

$ python3 hello.py

The hello.py program that you just created will cause your terminal to produce the following output:

Hello, World!

Congratulations! You have written the "Hello, World!" program in Python 3.

Python is easy to learn - You will enjoy it.

5 Comments

temp

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